The Talmud, also called the “Oral Law,” is a collection of Jewish texts compiled sometime between the fifth and sixth centuries C.E. It consists of two primary parts: (1) the Mishnah, which is an early codification of Jewish oral laws supplementing the laws found in the Torah, and (2) the Gemara, which is a rabbinic commentary on the Mishnah. Within Judaism, it is believed that the Mishnah preserves certain traditions and halakhic rulings that date back to at least the time of Ezra (fifth century B.C.E.).

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